Soviet assistance in latin america

In Congress, the annual Foreign Operations Appropriations bills have been the vehicles by which Congress provides funding for, and exercises oversight of foreign assistance programs.The Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) is the centerpiece of U.S. policy toward Colombia and the Andean region.The MCA, that was unveiled in 2002 and became operational in 2004, links U.S. assistance with good governance and measures of performance of recipient nations.It is possible that further reforms could be proposed for FY2008.Amounts requested for FY2007 would reduce this ratio to 10.6%. Two countries — Honduras and Nicaragua — have signed compacts for Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) funds.

DA democracy programs also seek to strengthen Latin American democracies by supporting elections, strengthening civil society, and protecting human rights.

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Key groups targeted for assistance include women, Afro-Cubans, and youth as well as libraries, labor organizations, human rights groups, and other independent non- governmental organizations in Cuba. U.S. democratization assistance for Cuba is also provided through the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), which traditionally has been funded in State Department appropriations bills.ESF assistance in the Andean region, Mexico, and Central America is used to pursue justice sector reform, facilitate implementation of free trade agreements, improve local governance, fight corruption, and promote respect for human rights.Foreign Military Financing (FMF) provides grants to nations for the purchase of U.S. defense equipment, services and training.Assistance to the small nations of the Eastern Caribbean (Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados Dominica, Grenada, St.

However, the FY2006 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act (P.L. 109-102) maintained a prohibition on FMF funding to Guatemala.It provides some funding to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to provide support for legal frameworks to prevent and combat organized crime, and the Organization of American States Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) to strengthen national drug commissions and to support the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM).Since 2002, Congress has granted expanded authority to use counternarcotics funds for a unified campaign to fight both drug trafficking and terrorist organizations in Colombia.Anti-terrorism assistance is provided through the State Department.Colombia, the major recipient of military assistance in Latin America, has signed an agreement.This account, funded through the annual Agriculture Appropriations bill, provides the funds for USAID to respond quickly to the food assistance needs of countries facing emergency situations.The FY2006 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 109-102) provided that CSH and DA funding for Central America should not be less than what was provided in FY2005.Specific measurements of each category would be taken from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Freedom House annual study on civil liberties and political freedom, among others.

Soviet Military Assistance An Empirical Perspective William H. Mott IV. Soviet Military Assistance in Asia and Latin America 225 7.With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, U.S. concerns about spreading communist influence lessened, and so too did levels of U.S. assistance.Burgeoning trade ties coincided with the election of new administrations in both countries in 2000 and promises of greater U.S.-Mexico cooperation in the areas of counter-narcotics, immigration, law enforcement, and trade.Third, MCA funds are intended to center exclusively on development goals without regard for other U.S. foreign policy and geostrategic objectives.

Second, the conceptualization of development projects rests with the countries themselves and their national development strategies, with the United States playing an advisory role.Interventions used to reduce preventable child deaths include immunizations, pneumonia and diarrhea prevention and treatment, oral rehydration, safe birthing and prenatal care, nutrition, and breast-feeding initiatives.The HIPC initiative was first launched in 1996 by the IMF and the World Bank to provide relief to extremely poor countries facing unsustainable amounts of foreign debt.Looking ahead to future years, several Caribbean nations are potential recipients for Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) assistance, an initiative to target foreign assistance to countries with strong records of performance in the areas of governance, economic policy, and investment in people.

FEMCIDI, financed by voluntary contributions from member states and other assets, contributes to national and multinational development projects.Although Colombia is a major recipient of ACI funds, it does not receive any economic assistance, although portions of ACI funds are transferred to USAID for alternative development and institution-building programs. 2 Brazil receives assistance from the Andean Counterdrug Initiative because it shares a 1,000 mile border with Colombia even though Brazil is not considered an Andean country.On the alternative development side, funds support economic development programs in coca growing areas, including infrastructure development, and marketing and technical support for alternative crops.Food aid is targeted at vulnerable populations, especially those coping with, or recovering from, natural or manmade disasters, including prolonged civil strife.DA - Dev e lopm en t A s s i s t an ce CSH - Ch ild Su r v iv al an d Health ES F - Econ om i c S u pport F u n d s PL 480 - em erg e n c y f ood ai d I M ET - I n ter n atio n a l Militar y Ed u catio n an d T r ain i n g A C I - A n d ean Co u n t er d r u g I n itiativ e FMF - Fo r e ig n Militar y Fin a n c in g.Latin America Assistance (LAA) - specialized in performing local assistance services in South.

LAA - Latin America Assistance

Latin America is nobody. region in order to act as a firewall to contain Soviet influence.The Kremlin took an interest in setting up ventures with state or private firms, especially hydroelectric power, irrigation, mining, and fishing projects.The core of U.S. counternarcotics programs in Latin America is the ACI.FY2007 funding for the five core Central American countries would decline by 9% from FY2006, with the largest cuts occurring in Development Assistance.Through the State Department, the United States has provided Anti-Terrorism Assistance (ATA) training and equipment to Latin American countries to help improve their capabilities in such areas as airport security management, hostage negotiations, bomb detection and deactivation, and countering terrorism financing.

Central America is a region comprised of seven small countries with limited populations and economic resources.The Administration has stated that it does not intend for the MCA to negatively affect its other development programs.It also includes programs to strengthen the rule of law and to promote demand reduction.ProgramFunding level Anti-Terrorism FY200612.30 FY200711.90 Total - FY2006145.27 Total - FY2007106.80 Source: Fig u r es are draw n f r om U.S. Departm e n t of State C o n g r es s i on al B u dget J u s tif ication, S u m m a ry T a bl es, F i s cal Y ear 2007.The MCA program, if fully funded, represents one of the few marked increases in U.S. foreign assistance since the Marshall Plan after World War II, and the Alliance for Progress in Latin America during the 1960s.Remarks to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, April 2, 2003.

The United States has also made substantial contributions to a few specific funds developed by the OAS through foreign operations appropriations.Congress did include report language that Central American countries should receive no less than they did in FY2005 in CSH and DA funds.